Alize Cornet could face a ban after missing three drugs tests in the space of a year.
The International Tennis Federation (ITF) on Thursday revealed the world number 42 had been charged on January 11.
Cornet, beaten by Elise Mertens in the third round of the Australian Open last week, said "valuable reasons" had caused her to be unavailable for testing.
The 27-year-old will not available for France's Fed Cup first-round tie against Belgium next month, but is able to continue playing on the WTA Tour before a hearing in March.
Cornet said in a statement posted on Twitter: "I wanted to let you know personally what is happening to me right now.
"Last October, I got a third 'no show' from the Anti-Doping Agency and the ITF, which means that among the 20 anti-doping controls that I had in the 2017 season, which were all negative of course, I missed 3 announced controls at home because of valuable reasons that the ITF didn't want to hear.
"My case will be presented in a hearing in March that will determine the rest of my season. I will continue my tournaments normally until then, nevertheless I won't be able to represent my country at the next Fed Cup event due to a clause in the ITF law.
"I will keep you updated and promise you to stay strong during this tough time."