Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo might be the dominant figures of 21st-century football but they are worth less than Tottenham duo Harry Kane and Dele Alli according to analysis by the International Centre for Sports Studies (CIES).
Messi's Barcelona team-mate Neymar comes out on top of the list compiled by the Swiss-based study centre, which estimates the value of the 110 most desirable players in Europe's top five leagues, using an algorithm based on analysis of almost 2,000 paying fee transfers.
Neymar is valued at EUR210.7million under criteria considering performance, club, international status, age, position and marketability.
However, Messi, who turns 30 later this month and is reportedly on the verge of extending his contract at Camp Nou, comes in fourth on EUR151.7m, with England internationals Alli and Kane pipping him on EUR155.1m and EUR153.6m respectively following superb seasons for Spurs.
Ronaldo is favourite to match Messi with a fifth Ballon d'Or at the end of the year, having inspired Real Madrid to LaLiga and Champions League glory.
However, the 32-year-old comes in at EUR112.4m in the CIES standings, below Antoine Griezmann, Luis Suarez, Paul Pogba, Gonzalo Higuain, Eden Hazard and Paulo Dybala.
Ronaldo is the oldest player on the list, with Monaco sensation Kylian Mbappe the youngest.
Despite being linked with a world record move to Real Madrid, Mbappe only registers EUR92.6m, ranking him below the likes of Manchester City's Raheem Sterling and Atletico Madrid's Yannick Carrasco.
Manchester United's often-derided move to make Pogba the most expensive player in the world represents value for money in the CIES figures, although the previous holder of that accolade - Real Madrid's Gareth Bale - finds himself down in 43rd position on EUR66.7m after an injury ravaged campaign.
CIES Football Observatory transfer value estimates - top 25Neymar - Barcelona EUR210.7m
Dele Alli - Tottenham EUR155.1m
Harry Kane - Tottenham EUR153.6m
Lionel Messi - Barcelona EUR151.7m
Antoine Griezmann - Atletico Madrid EUR150.3m
Luis Suarez - Barcelona EUR140.8m
Paul Pogba - Manchester United EUR134.3m
Gonzalo Higuain - Juventus EUR120.2m
Eden Hazard - Chelsea EUR117.2m
Paulo Dybala - Juventus EUR115.3m
Cristiano Ronaldo - Real Madrid EUR112.4m
Kevin de Bruyne - Manchester City EUR110.5m
Romelu Lukaku - Everton EUR105.4m
Robert Lewandowski - Bayern Munich EUR100.6m
Raheem Sterling - Manchester City EUR98.8m
Yannick Carrasco - Atletico Madrid EUR97.6m
Alexis Sanchez - Arsenal EUR95.9m
Kylian Mbappe - Monaco EUR92.6m
Ousmane Dembele - Borussia Dortmund EUR87.1m
Roberto Firmino - Liverpool EUR85.3
Eric Dier - Tottenham EUR85m
Diego Costa - Chelsea EUR83.4m
Edinson Cavani - PSG EUR82.8m
Christian Eriksen - Tottenham EUR82.5m