McLaren report part two: The key findings

Updated: 

More startling claims over the extent of doping in Russian sport were made in the second part of the McLaren report, which was published on Friday.

Professor Richard McLaren delivered the final conclusions to of the investigation he was commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to lead following damning allegations made against Russia two years ago.

Here we pick out some of the standout claims outlined by the Canadian lawyer in part two of his report.

 

-  Over 1000 Russian athletes across 30 sports, including football, competing in the Olympic Games, Winter Olympics and Paralympics between 2011 and 2015 were involved in or benefited from state-sponsored doping.

- Russian doping cover-ups took place on an "unprecedented scale" from at least 2011, with manipulations to conceal positive doping tests.

- The summer and winter sports athletes were not acting individually but within an "organised infrastructure".

- The Russian Olympic team corrupted the 2012 Games in London on an unprecedented scale which "may never be fully established".

- Fifteen Russian athletes who won medals at London 2012 are implicated - 10 of whom have been stripped of their medals.

- Sample-swapping techniques used at the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics became a regular monthly practice of the Moscow laboratory in dealing with elite summer and winter athletes

- Male DNA was traced in samples from two female ice hockey players who competed in the Sochi Olympics following sample swapping.

- Twelve athletes who won medals in Sochi had scratches and marks on the inside of the caps of their B sample bottles, indicating tampering.

- Three samples taken from Sochi Olympic medal-winners came back with "physiologically impossible" salt readings.

- Six winners of 21 Paralympic medals are found to have had their urine samples tampered with at Sochi.

- A clean bank of urine was kept in a Moscow Laboratory for members of the Russian national team, Olympic Champions, season leaders and medal candidates. 

- Salt and coffee granules were added to some clean A samples in order to "match the specific gravity and appearance of the dirty B samples".

- Four track and field athletes who competed in the 2013 World Championships in Moscow had their samples swapped.