Ferrari are a "group of frightened people" working in "a climate of fear" under Sergio Marchionne and Maurizio Arrivabene, according to former chief track engineer Luca Baldisserri.
Red Bull and Mercedes have dominated Formula One in recent seasons, with the Italian team last having a driver win the world championship with Kimi Raikkonen in 2007.
Arrivabene took over as team principal in November 2014, while Marchionne was appointed Ferrari chief executive in May.
Baldisserri believes the pair lack the knowledge to successfully lead the team, pointing to the recent departure of technical director James Allison as evidence of their poor management.
"Unfortunately, neither Marchionne nor Arrivabene have experience of racing, a culture that today the Scuderia has lost," Baldisserri told Corriere dello Sport.
"They are no longer a team, but a group of frightened people. In there is a climate of fear, the boys do not take risks for fear of being fired in disgrace.
"The bosses are there to show the way, to motivate people, to decide, and if mistakes are made you should not be sent away, as happened to Allison - a great loss."
Baldisserri is confident Ferrari can challenge for titles in the future, but believes a change to a more calm and measured approach is necessary.
He added: "[Ferrari will win again] when they are able to achieve efficient organisation and stability, with good ideas and drivers who do not make mistakes.
"The money is there, with the political authority we have, but you win with stability. It should not be rushed.
"I understand that Marchionne wants to win right away, but in Formula 1 that does not work. It's difficult to make it in less than three years."