The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) has dismissed Russia's appeal against a ban from competing at the 2016 Paralympic Games.
Russia was banned from competing by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) on August 7 following allegations of state-sponsored doping made in an independent report commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).
While the International Olympic Committee opted against a blanket ban on Russian athletes at Rio 2016, handing responsibility to individual sport federations, the IPC took the firmer stance.
Following an appeal to CAS from the Russian Paralympic Committee (RPC), the IPC's ruling has been upheld.
A CAS statement read: "The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) has dismissed the appeal filed by the Russian Paralympic Committee (RPC) against the decision rendered by Governing Board of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) on 7 August 2016. As a consequence, the IPC decision is confirmed.
"Following revelations related to the doping system in Russia, the IPC Governing Board suspended the RPC from IPC membership due to its alleged inability to fulfil its responsibilities and obligations to comply with the IPC Anti-doping Code and the World Anti-doping Code.
"The CAS Panel in charge of this matter found that the IPC did not violate any procedural rule in dealing with the disciplinary process leading to the RPC's suspension and that the decision to ban the RPC was made in accordance with the IPC Rules and was proportionate in the circumstances.
"The Panel also noted that the RPC did not file any evidence contradicting the facts on which the IPC decision was based.
"In making its decision, the CAS Panel did consider the particular status of the RPC as a national governing body but did not determine the existence of, or the extent of, any natural justice rights or personality rights afforded to individual athletes following the suspension of the RPC."
The build-up to the Paralympics has also been marred by budget cuts by the Rio 2016 organising committee and disappointing ticket sales.