Younis Khan produced a stunning double century to put Pakistan in complete control on day three of the final Test, as England's second innings got off to a dismal start.
The tourists started the day 12 runs ahead with four wickets in hand at The Oval, but England made hard work of claiming the remaining wickets, with Younis taking full advantage.
Having already chalked up 101 runs on day two, Younis passed the 200 mark with a six - one of 35 boundaries hit by the 38-year-old during his innings - before being trapped lbw by James Anderson.
Pakistan's total of 542 left England 214 behind heading into their second innings, but the wickets fell at a rapid rate to put the hosts on the ropes, ending the day 126 adrift on 88-4.
Sarfraz Ahmed (44) was first to fall for Pakistan when he edged behind for Jonny Bairstow to catch with his outstretched right arm, before Younis survived a scare that could have shaped the rest of the innings.
Caught on the pads by a Steven Finn delivery, Younis - on 133 at the time - was spared by the ball-tracker after the umpire's decision went to a review.
Wahab Riaz was dropped by Alastair Cook two deliveries before being stumped for four runs, and Younis was eventually dispatched after building a 97-run partnership with Mohammad Amir - Pakistan's last man standing on 39 not out.
Finn, who posted figures of 3-110, claimed the last wicket of Sohail Khan - caught by Stuart Broad - to match Chris Woakes' (3-82) haul.
Faced with a sizeable first-innings deficit to overcome, England were dealt an early setback when captain Cook (7) was caught at first slip by Iftikhar Ahmed off a Wahab delivery.
And the hosts were unable to build any momentum, with Alex Hales (12) and James Vince (0) falling in quick succession, before Joe Root (39) failed with a review of an lbw call.
Yasir Shah was in devastating form with the ball, claiming the wickets of Hales, Vince and Root at a cost of just 15 runs, and Pakistan will hope to maintain their momentum on Sunday.