Women leaders saved lives from Covid-19 by locking down earlier, study says

Women leaders acted "more quickly and decisively" to save lives by locking down their nations to slow the spread of coronavirus, according to a study.

Their actions in the early days of the pandemic resulted in "systematically and significantly better" outcomes for their citizens than in countries led by men, the research suggested.

The scientists said there is a "definite and consistent pattern" showing a lower number of Covid-19 deaths in women-led nations when accounting for a variety of factors.

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LONDON, ENGLAND - APRIL 19: Queen Elizabeth II greets Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand in the Blue Drawing Room at The Queen's Dinner during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) at Buckingham Palace on April 19, 2018 in London, England. (Photo by Victoria Jones - WPA Pool/Getty Images)
New Zealand's Prime Minister of New Zealand Jacinda Ardern and her partner Clarke Gayford are greeted by Britain's Queen Elizabeth during a private audience at Buckingham Palace, London April 19, 2018. Dominic Lipinski/Pool via Reuters
Britain's Prince William arrives with New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern at the RNZAF Air Movements Terminal on April 25, 2019 in Christchurch, New Zealand. Hannah Peters/Pool via REUTERS *** Local Caption *** CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND - APRIL 25: Prince William, Duke of Cambridge arrives with New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern at the RNZAF Air Movements Terminal on April 25, 2019 in Christchurch, New Zealand. Prince William is on a two-day visit to New Z
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern greets Britain's Prime Minister Theresa May and Patricia Scotland, Secretary General of the Commonwealth, ahead of a working session at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in London, April 19, 2018. REUTERS/Hannah McKay
Britain's Prince Harry and Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, meet New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern at Government House in Wellington, New Zealand, October 28, 2018. Kirsty Wigglesworth/Pool via REUTERS
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex with Meghan, Duchess of Sussex at a reception at the Auckland War Memorial Museum where they were greeted by the Prime Minister of New Zealand Jacinda Ardern in Auckland, New Zealand October 30, 2018. Ian Vogler/Pool via Reuters
New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern kisses her baby Neve after speaking at the Nelson Mandela Peace Summit during the 73rd United Nations General Assembly in New York, U.S., September 24, 2018. Picture taken September 24, 2018. REUTERS/Carlo Allegri
Prince Charles and his wife Camilla the Duchess of Cornwall sit next to New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern (R) during a visit to Cashmere High School in Cashmere, New Zealand November 22, 2019. REUTERS/Tracey Nearmy/Pool
Britain's Prince Charles meets with New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern at Government House in Auckland, New Zealand, November 19, 2019. Patrice Allen/Pool via REUTERS
New Zealand Labour leader Jacinda Ardern smiles as she speaks to the press after leader of New Zealand First party Winston Peters announced his support for her party in Wellington, New Zealand, October 19, 2017. REUTERS/Charlotte Greenfield
Australia's Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull greets New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern before their meeting in Sydney, Australia, November 5, 2017. REUTERS/David Gray
Vietnam's President Tran Dai Quang welcomes New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern at the APEC Business Advisory Council dialogue during the APEC summit in Danang, Vietnam November 10, 2017. REUTERS/Jorge Silva
Britain's Prime Minister Theresa May laughs during a meeting with New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and military personnel in Downing Street in London, Britain January 21, 2019. Kirsty Wigglesworth/Pool via REUTERS
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern waves to student dancers (not pictured) upon her arrival to attend the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit and related meetings in Clark, Pampanga, northern Philippines November 12, 2017. REUTERS/Erik De Castro
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern arrives to attend the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit and related meetings in Clark, Pampanga, northern Philippines November 12, 2017. REUTERS/Erik De Castro
New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern inspects soldiers during an official welcoming ceremony at Admiralty House in Sydney, Australia, March 2, 2018. REUTERS/Dean Lewins/Pool
French President Emmanuel Macron (R) greets New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern (L) upon her arrival at the Elysee Palace in Paris, France, April 16, 2018. REUTERS/Charles Platiau
Clarke Gayford, the partner of New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern, holds their baby Neve as Ardern addresses the 73rd session of the United Nations General Assembly at U.N. headquarters in New York, U.S., September 27, 2018. REUTERS/Caitlin Ochs
New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern carries her newborn baby Neve Te Aroha Ardern Gayford with partner Clarke Gayford as she walks out of the Auckland Hospital in New Zealand, June 24, 2018. REUTERS/Ross Land
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau walk through the grounds of Windsor Castle in Windsor, Britain, April 20, 2018. Andrew Matthews/Pool via Reuters
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern takes a drink as she delivers a speech at The Queen's Dinner during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting at Buckingham Palace in London, Britain, April 19, 2018. REUTERS/Toby Melville/Pool
German Chancellor Angela Merkel and New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern arrive for a a press conference after a meeting at the chancellery in Berlin, Germany, April 17, 2018. REUTERS/Hannibal Hanschke
German Chancellor Angela Merkel and New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern leave after a news conference at the chancellery in Berlin, Germany, April 17, 2018. REUTERS/Hannibal Hanschke
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern is welcomed by European Council President Donald Tusk in Brussels, Belgium January 25, 2019. REUTERS/Yves Herman
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern attends the national remembrance service for victims of the mosque attacks, at Hagley Park in Christchurch, New Zealand March 29, 2019. REUTERS/Jorge Silva
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern leaves after the Friday prayers at Hagley Park outside Al-Noor mosque in Christchurch, New Zealand March 22, 2019. REUTERS/Jorge Silva
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern meets with one of the first responders who was at the scene of the Christchurch mosque shooting, in Christchurch, New Zealand March 20, 2019. REUTERS/Edgar Su
New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern holds her baby Neve after speaking at the Nelson Mandela Peace Summit during the 73rd United Nations General Assembly in New York City, New York, U.S., September 24, 2018. Picture taken September 24, 2018. REUTERS/Carlo Allegri
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker hold a news conference in Brussels, Belgium January 25, 2019. REUTERS/Yves Herman
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern greets Imam Gamal Fouda during her visit to Masjid Al Noor in Christchurch, New Zealand March 26, 2019. Joseph Johnson/Pool via REUTERS
Chinese President Xi Jinping and New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern shake hands before the meeting at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, China April 1, 2019. Kenzaburo Fukuhara/KYODONEWS/Pool via REUTERS
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and Myanmar's State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi attend the East Asia Summit (EAS) in Bangkok, Thailand, November 4, 2019. REUTERS/Athit Perawongmetha
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern (R) and Japan's Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (L) arrive for a joint press conference on September 19, 2019 in Tokyo, Japan. Tomohiro Ohsumi/Pool via REUTERS *** Local Caption *** TOKYO, JAPAN - SEPTEMBER 19: New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern (R) and Japan's Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (L) arrive for a joint press conference on September 19, 2019 in Tokyo, Japan. (Photo by Tomohiro Ohsumi/Getty Images)
French President Emmanuel Macron and New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern leave after the launch of the 'Christchurch Appeal' against terrorism at the Elysee Palace in Paris, France, May 15, 2019. REUTERS/Charles Platiau
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern leaves after the Friday prayers at Hagley Park outside Al-Noor mosque in Christchurch, New Zealand March 22, 2019. REUTERS/Jorge Silva TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern reacts during a media standup in the aftermath of the eruption of White Island volcano, also known by its Maori name Whakaari, at Whakatane, New Zealand December 13, 2019. REUTERS/Jorge Silva
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Men such as Prime Minister Boris Johnson have come under criticism for not enforcing harsh restrictions to control the virus soon enough, while women like New Zealand's Jacinda Ardern have been heralded for their swift action.

But the scientists in the research published by the World Economic Forum tried to ascertain whether having a woman in charge was beneficial in the first quarter of the pandemic so far.

The University of Liverpool's Professor Supriya Garikipati wrote: "Our results above clearly indicate that women leaders reacted more quickly and decisively in the face of potential fatalities.

"In almost all cases, they locked down earlier than male leaders in similar circumstances."

The researchers noted "several incidents of risky behaviour" by men, including Boris Johnson's claim he was shaking hands with "everybody" in a hospital with coronavirus patients weeks before he became perilously ill with Covid-19.

But the research should not be interpreted as playing into the stereotype of women supposedly being risk averse, with Prof Garikipati saying the reality is far more complex.

She argued that "women were less willing to take risks with lives but were more willing to accept risks in relation to the early lockdown of economies".

"It could well be that the relatively late lockdown decisions by male leaders may reflect male risk aversion to anticipated losses from locking down the economy," she added.

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Coronavirus across the globe
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Coronavirus across the globe
Students wearing face masks to prevent the spread of the coronavirus arrive at a primary school in Peshawar, Pakistan, Wednesday, Sept. 30, 2020. Pakistani students head back to primary schools following their reopening, amid a steady decline in coronavirus deaths and infections. (AP Photo/Muhammad Sajjad)
A medical professional in full protective equipment works in the critical care coronavirus unit, which was built in an underground parking garage at Sheba Medical center in Ramat Gan, Israel, Wednesday, Sept. 30, 2020, amid a spike in COVID-19 cases. (AP Photo/Maya Alleruzzo)
HUY, BELGIUM - SEPTEMBER 30: Podium / Benoit Cosnefroy of France and Team AG2R La Mondiale Silver medal / Marc Hirschi of Switzerland and Team Sunweb / Michael Woods of Canada and Team EF Education First Pro Cycling Bronze medal / Celebration / Mask / Covid safety measures / Flowers / during the 84th La Fleche Wallonne 2020, Men Elite a 202km stage from Herve to Mur de Huy / @flechewallone / #FlecheWallone / on September 30, 2020 in Huy, Belgium. (Photo by Bas Czerwinski/Getty Images)
Boracay Island, PHILIPPINES - SEPTEMBER 30: A worker sits next to beverages at a resort on September 30, 2020 in Boracay Island, Philippines. The Philippines is reopening Boracay Island, a popular tourist destination known for its resorts and beaches, to more visitors starting October 1 in a bid to revive its pandemic-hit tourism sector. Tourism accounted for almost 13% of the Philippines economic output last year, according to the Department of Tourism. The reopening of Boracay comes as the nation tries to stimulate the economy even as coronavirus cases continue to rise. The country surpassed 312,000 cases of COVID-19, with at least 5,504 deaths. (Photo by Ezra Acayan/Getty Images)
Doctor Oleh Hornostayev, wearing a special suit to protect against coronavirus, closes a door of the elevator at the city hospital in Stryi, Ukraine, Tuesday, Sept. 29, 2020. The worldwide death toll from the coronavirus eclipsed 1 million, nine months into a crisis that has devastated the global economy, tested world leaders' resolve, pitted science against politics and forced multitudes to change the way they live, learn and work. (AP Photo/Evgeniy Maloletka)
A nine year old boy, left, in personal protective equipment offers prayers during the cremation of his father who died of COVID-19 in Gauhati, India, Monday, Sept. 28, 2020. India’s confirmed coronavirus tally has reached 6 million cases, keeping the country second to the United States in number of reported cases since the pandemic began. (AP Photo/Anupam Nath)
Israeli acrobat Shay Rylski performs on a car-free road, during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, in Tel Aviv, Israel, Monday, Sept. 28, 2020. The solemn Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, which annually sees Israeli life grind to a halt, comes this year as the nation is already under a sweeping coronavirus lockdown. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty)
Passengers wearing face masks as a preventive measure against the Covid-19 coronavirus arrive at Pudong International Airport in Shanghai on September 29, 2020. (Photo by Hector RETAMAL / AFP) (Photo by HECTOR RETAMAL/AFP via Getty Images)
A man wears a face mask as he walks past the Old Opera in Frankfurt, Germany, Monday, Sept. 28, 2020. (AP Photo/Michael Probst)
With social distancing barrier, an ultra-Orthodox Jewish man and an Israeli soldier pray ahead of Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish year which starts at sundown Sunday during a three-week nationwide lockdown to curb the spread of the coronavirus at the Western Wall, the holiest site where Jews can pray in Jerusalem's old city, Sunday, Sept. 27, 2020. The solemn Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, which annually sees Israeli life grind to a halt, arrived on Sunday in a nation already under a sweeping coronavirus lockdown. (AP Photo/Ariel Schalit)
A worker applies varnish to a coffin at the Eurocoffin factory in Barcelona, Spain, Monday, Sept. 28, 2020. As the U.S. closed in on 200,000 coronavirus deaths Monday, the crisis deteriorated across Europe, with Britain working to draw up new restrictions, Spain clamping down again in Madrid and the Czech Republic replacing its health minister with an epidemiologist because of a surge of infections. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
Angry restaurant and bar owners demonstrate in Marseille, southern France, Friday Sept. 25, 2020 to challenge a French government order to close all public venues as of Saturday to battle resurgent virus infections. The protesters, and local officials in France's second-biggest city, are also threatening legal action, to try to block the order via the courts. They argue that Marseille's virus case rise has been stabilizing, and that the central government in Paris is unfairly singling out Marseille for the toughest virus measures in the nation. (AP Photo/Daniel Cole)
Attendees wearing face masks to protect against the coronavirus watch a presentation by auto maker Geely at the Beijing International Automotive Exhibition, also known as Auto China, in Beijing, Saturday, Sept. 26, 2020. Auto China 2020, postponed from March, is the first major trade show for any industry since the pandemic began as automakers are looking to China, the first major economy to start recovering from the coronavirus pandemic, to drive sales growth and reverse multibillion-dollar losses. (AP Photo/Mark Schiefelbein)
Shaina holds flowers during the burial of Paula Sebastian, who died due to COVID-19 at the age of 62, in cemetery "Martires 19 de Julio" , in Comas on the outskirts of Lima, Peru, Friday, Sept. 25, 2020. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd)
Spain's Rafael Nadal, center, coach Francisco Roig, right, and his staff wearing face masks to prevent the spread of coronavirus gather during a break at the Roland Garros stadium during practicing in Paris, Friday, Sept. 25, 2020. Already repeatedly trimmed, crowd sizes for the French Open have been reduced again to just 1,000 spectators per day because of the worsening coronavirus epidemic in Paris. (AP Photo/Michel Euler)
A man rides a bicycle next to a billboard calling people to wear masks, on empty road following new restrictions in the three-week nationwide lockdown, in Tel Aviv, Israel, Saturday, Sept. 26, 2020. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty)
People wear face masks to protect against the spread of the coronavirus and visit at a night market in Taipei, Taiwan, Friday, Sept. 25, 2020. (AP Photo/Chiang Ying-ying)
MOSCOW, RUSSIA - SEPTEMBER 26, 2020: A member of staff cleans Karo cinema kiosks at the Atrium shopping and entertainment centre. Mikhail Metzel/TASS (Photo by Mikhail Metzel\TASS via Getty Images)
A woman wearing a face mask to protect against the coronavirus disease walks in downtown Moscow on September 25, 2020. (Photo by Yuri KADOBNOV / AFP) (Photo by YURI KADOBNOV/AFP via Getty Images)
Visitors wearing face masks react on the RC Racer ride at the Hong Kong Disneyland, Friday, Sept. 25, 2020. Hong Kong Disneyland reopened its doors to visitors after closed temporarily due to the coronavirus outbreak. (AP Photo/Kin Cheung)
A ball girl wearing a face mask to prevent the spread of coronavirus takes tennis balls during a qualification match in Paris, Friday, Sept. 25, 2020. Already repeatedly trimmed, crowd sizes for the French Open have been reduced again to just 1,000 spectators per day because of the worsening coronavirus epidemic in Paris. (AP Photo/Michel Euler)
Visitors wearing face masks take a selfie with the iconic cartoon characters Donald Duck and Daisy Duck at the Hong Kong Disneyland, Friday, Sept. 25, 2020. Hong Kong Disneyland reopened its doors to visitors after closed temporarily due to the coronavirus outbreak. (AP Photo/Kin Cheung)
Luis Chacon, the current person representing Mama Negra, leads the festival in honor of the Virgin of Las Mercedes in Latacunga, Ecuador, Thursday, Sept. 24, 2020. The Mama Negra festival dates back to 1742 when the people of Latacunga ask the Virgin of Las Mercedes to protect them from the eruptions of the neighboring Cotopaxi volcano. Today the festival took place despite the new coronavirus pandemic restrictions and devotees asked the virgin to protect them from the disease. (AP Photo/Dolores Ochoa)
A waiter wearing a face mask sets up tables outside a restaurant in downtown Rome on September 25, 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus. - Italy, which was hit hard by the first wave of the coronavirus, is today an exception in Europe with a limited number of new cases, a result obtained at the price of strict anti-COVID measures, hailed on September 25, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). (Photo by Vincenzo PINTO / AFP) (Photo by VINCENZO PINTO/AFP via Getty Images)
Mask-clad Palestinians, unable to reach the Al-Aqsa mosque compound amidst strengthened restriction due to the coronavirus, perform the Friday prayers in front of the Lion's Gate in Jerusalem, on September 25, 2020. - Israel toughened its coronavirus measures yesterday as a second nationwide lockdown failed to bring down the world's highest infection rate a week after it was imposed. The new rules will close the vast majority of workplaces, shutter markets and further limit prayers and demonstrations. (Photo by Ahmad GHARABLI / AFP) (Photo by AHMAD GHARABLI/AFP via Getty Images)
Activists from the COVID Memorial Project mark the deaths of 200,000 lives lost in the U.S. to COVID-19 after placing thousands of small American flags places on the grounds of the National Mall in Washington, Tuesday, Sept. 22, 2020. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)
Morning joggers look over small flags that activists from the COVID Memorial Project placed on the grounds of the National Mall to mark the deaths of 200,000 lives lost in the U.S. to COVID-19, Tuesday, Sept. 22, 2020 in Washington. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)
A health worker collects a nasal swab sample to test for COVID-19 in Hyderabad, India, Tuesday, Sept. 22, 2020. The nation of 1.3 billion people is expected to become the coronavirus pandemic's worst-hit country within weeks, surpassing the United States. (AP Photo/Mahesh Kumar A.)
IVANOVO, RUSSIA - SEPTEMBER 22, 2020: A pharmacist in a face mask shows boxes of favipiravir under the brand name of Avifavir at a storage facility of the Farmatsiya pharmacy chain. The medication was developed in Japan under the name of favipiravir by 2014. It became a generic drug in 2019. In May 2020, it was registered by Russia's Health Ministry under the brand name of Avifavir and approved for treating COVID-19 in hospitals. Vladimir Smirnov/TASS (Photo by Vladimir Smirnov\TASS via Getty Images)
A woman adjusts a bandage in use as a face mask attached to her headphones in Prague, Czech Republic, Saturday, Sept. 19, 2020. The Czech Republic has been been facing the second wave of infections of COVID-19. The number of new confirmed coronavirus infections has been setting new records almost on a daily basis. (AP Photo/Petr David Josek)
A woman wearing a face mask stands in front of huge inflatable globe model of planet earth in Prague, Czech Republic, Saturday, Sept. 19, 2020. The Czech Republic has been been facing the second wave of infections of COVID-19. The number of new confirmed coronavirus infections has been setting new records almost on a daily basis. (AP Photo/Petr David Josek)
Colomba and her brother Nahuel Nuñez perform the Chilean national dance called the "cueca" while their mother Marisol Tobar records a video of their performance with a cellphone for a school project, in downtown Santiago, Chile, Saturday, Sept. 19, 2020. (AP Photo/Esteban Felix)
A man wears a muzzle during a protest in Bucharest, Romania, Saturday, Sept. 19, 2020. Several hundred Romanians, including many families with young children, held a protest in the country's capital against measures meant to curb the spread of the coronavirus, especially social distancing and the mandatory use of masks in schools. (AP Photo/Vadim Ghirda)
A man wearing a face mask waits for the start a concert of British violinist Daniel Hope set on a floating stage on the Vltava river in Prague, Czech Republic, Saturday, Sept. 19, 2020. The Czech Republic has been been facing the second wave of infections of COVID-19. The number of new confirmed coronavirus infections has been setting new records almost on a daily basis. The National Theater is in the background. (AP Photo/Petr David Josek)
People wearing face masks to help protect against the spread of the coronavirus walk by a poster informing mandatory mask wearing at a subway station in Seoul, South Korea, Sunday, Sept. 20, 2020. South Korea's new coronavirus tally has fallen below 100 for the first time in more than a month. The banner reads: " Which mask would you wear?" (AP Photo/Ahn Young-joon)
A woman takes a selfie with glowing full moon installations at a park in Seoul, South Korea, Friday, Sept. 18, 2020. The artificial full moons have been installed by a local officials to increase morale during the COVID-19 outbreak and to celebrate the upcoming Chuseok holiday, the Korean version of Thanksgiving Day. (AP Photo/Ahn Young-joon)
Women stand next to glowing full moon installations at a park in Seoul, South Korea, Friday, Sept. 18, 2020. The artificial full moons have been installed by a local officials to increase morale during the COVID-19 outbreak and to celebrate the upcoming Chuseok holiday, the Korean version of Thanksgiving Day. (AP Photo/Ahn Young-joon)
A man wearing a face mask rides an escalator in subway in Prague, Czech Republic, Thursday, Sept. 17, 2020. The Czech Republic has been been facing the second wave of infections. The number of new confirmed coronavirus infections has been setting new records almost on a daily basis, currently surpassing 2,000 cases in one day for the first time. (AP Photo/Petr David Josek)
Hasidic Jewish pilgrims gather in front of Ukrainian border guards at the checkpoint Novaya Guta near Novaya Guta, Belarus, Friday, Sept. 18, 2020. Ukrainian officials say that thousands of Hasidic Jewish pilgrims stuck on the Ukrainian border due to coronavirus restrictions have started turning back. About 2,000 ultra-Orthodox Jewish pilgrims traveled to Belarus's border with Ukraine in hope of traveling to the Ukrainian city of Uman to visit the grave of an important Hasidic rabbi who died in 1810, Nachman of Breslov. (AP Photo)
Healthcare worker Mariela Jacobo conducts a nasal swab test for COVID-19 from inside a freestanding coronavirus testing isolation booth, at the Posadas hospital, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Thursday, Sept. 17, 2020. (AP Photo/Natacha Pisarenko)
Lisa lifts the official beer mug at the 'Oktoberfest' beer festival area 'Theresienwiese' in Munich, Germany, Thursday, Sept.17, 2020. The mug edition is limited to 15000 pieces and already sold out. The worlds largest beer festival was cancelled this year due to the new coronavirus outbreak. (AP Photo/Matthias Schrader)
MOSCOW, RUSSIA - SEPTEMBER,17 (RUSSIA OUT): Street musicians Sergei Valkov (C) and Tumur Murakaev (R) play violins in the underground passage of a metro station, on September 17, 2020 in Moscow, Russia. The requirement to wear masks and gloves to combat a spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) is still in effect in Moscow's region. (Photo by Mikhail Svetlov/Getty Images)
Democratic presidential candidate former Vice President Joe Biden speaks after participating in a coronavirus vaccine briefing with public health experts, Wednesday, Sept. 16, 2020, in Wilmington, Del. (AP Photo/Patrick Semansky)
LA ROCHE-SUR-FORON, FRANCE - SEPTEMBER 17: Start / Oliver Naesen of Belgium and Team Ag2R La Mondiale / Mask / Covid safety measures / Public / Fans / Social distance / during the 107th Tour de France 2020, Stage 18 a 175km stage from Méribel to La Roche sur Foron 543m / #TDF2020 / @LeTour / on September 17, 2020 in La Roche-sur-Foron, France. (Photo by Tim de Waele/Getty Images)
Brides and grooms wait for the Popes arrival for a limited public audience at the San Damaso courtyard in The Vatican on September 16, 2020 during the COVID-19 infection, caused by the novel coronavirus. (Photo by Vincenzo PINTO / AFP) (Photo by VINCENZO PINTO/AFP via Getty Images)
Pope Francis meets with worshippers and nuns wearing a face mask, upon his arrival to hold a limited public audience at the San Damaso courtyard in The Vatican on September 16, 2020 during the COVID-19 infection, caused by the novel coronavirus. (Photo by Vincenzo PINTO / AFP) (Photo by VINCENZO PINTO/AFP via Getty Images)
GOLD COAST, AUSTRALIA - SEPTEMBER 16: Patrons watch the tigers at Dreamworld on September 16, 2020 in Gold Coast, Australia. Dreamworld and its sister park White Water World have reopened to the public after the theme parks were closed in March over coronavirus concerns. Under the park's new COVID-19 safe plan, visitor numbers have been reduced and some rides and attractions will remain closed. Visitors will need to maintain physical distancing from other guests, and additional handwashing and hand sanitiser stations have been installed throughout the park. (Photo by Quinn Rooney/Getty Images)
WUHAN, CHINA - SEPTEMBER 16: (CHINA OUT) A man wears a mask while worshipping at the Guiyuan temple on September 16 , 2020 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China.The Guiyuan temple opened for the first time after the outbreak of the coronavirus.As there have been no recorded cases of community transmission in Wuhan since May, life for residents is returning to normal. (Photo by Getty Images)
Palestinians walk past a mural depicting a man and woman wearing a face mask painted on a wall in Deir Al-Balah, in the central Gaza Strip on Sept, 14, 2020.- Palestinian artists painted murals in different places in the Gaza Strip as part of a campaign to raise awareness of COVID-19 prevention during the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. (Photo by Majdi Fathi/NurPhoto via Getty Images)
Students study at Birmingham City University at the start of term, as thousands prepare to study in socially distanced surroundings. (Photo by Jacob King/PA Images via Getty Images)
A lady takes rest inside a matro cab in Kolkata.Kolkata Metro railway services resume under protocol of fourth phase of India Unlock, after being closed for almost over 6 months due to lock-down owing to COVID-19 outbreak. Strict protocols were maintain during the operation. (Photo by Debarchan Chatterjee/NurPhoto via Getty Images)
Palestinians walk past a mural depicting the coronavirus, in Deir Al-Balah, in the central Gaza Strip on Sept, 14, 2020.- Palestinian artists painted murals in different places in the Gaza Strip as part of a campaign to raise awareness of COVID-19 prevention during the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. (Photo by Majdi Fathi/NurPhoto via Getty Images)
Silvio Berlusconi press conference after his hospital discharge from San Raffaele Hospital in Milan where the Italian ex prime minister has been hospitalised after testing positive for the Coronavirus (Covid-19) on September 14, 2020 in Milan, Italy (Photo by Alessandro Bremec/NurPhoto via Getty Images)
A nurse takes a sample from a woman for a coronavirus test inside a bus converted into a test lab at the Sao Domingos de Rana high school in Cascais on September 14, 2020. - A coronavirus bus travelled through several schools in Cascais in the outskirts of Lisbon to deliver free COVID-19 tests to teachers and school employees days before the beginning of the academic year. (Photo by PATRICIA DE MELO MOREIRA / AFP) (Photo by PATRICIA DE MELO MOREIRA/AFP via Getty Images)
Dancers wear masks as they perform "Solo at Dusk," a work by Bobbi Jene Smith in collaboration with Or Schraiber, during the opening night of L.A. Dance Project's Drive-In Dances series on Thursday, Sept. 10, 2020, in downtown Los Angeles. The series was conceived by L.A. Dance Project to safely bring live dance back to Los Angeles during the COVID-19 era by reimagining their 2020-2021 season as a drive-in experience. (AP Photo/Chris Pizzello)
Dancers perform "Solo at Dusk," a work by Bobbi Jene Smith in collaboration with Or Schraiber, during the opening night of L.A. Dance Project's Drive-In Dances series, Thursday, Sept. 10, 2020, in downtown Los Angeles. The series was conceived by L.A. Dance Project to safely bring live dance back to Los Angeles during the COVID-19 era by reimagining their 2020-2021 season as a drive-in experience. (AP Photo/Chris Pizzello)
Azerbaijani actress Rana Asgarova wears a face mask as she arrives to attend a photocall for the film "Sepelenmis olumler arasinda" (In Between Dying) presented in competition on the tenth day of the 77th Venice Film Festival, on September 11, 2020 at Venice Lido, during the COVID-19 infection, caused by the novel coronavirus. (Photo by Tiziana FABI / AFP) (Photo by TIZIANA FABI/AFP via Getty Images)
A man wearing a mask and a face shield to curb the spread of the new coronavirus walks near a mural depicting the ruins of Machu Picchu, in Lima, Peru, Thursday, Sept. 10, 2020. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd)
A medic makes an intubation for a mechanical ventilation to a patient suffering from Covid-19 at the emergency unit of La Timone hospital in Marseille, southeastern France, on September 11, 2020. (Photo by Christophe SIMON / AFP) (Photo by CHRISTOPHE SIMON/AFP via Getty Images)
A masked and hooded man hurls stones at police during protests sparked by the death of a man after he was detained by police for violating social distancing rules to curb the spread of the coronavirus in Bogota, Wednesday, Sept. 9, 2020. Javier Ordonez died in a hospital after receiving repeated electric shocks with a stun gun from officers who detained him, seen on a video taken by Ordonez's friend, and published on social media. (AP Photo/Ivan Valencia)
Demonstrators clash with police during protests sparked by the death of a man after he was detained by police in Bogota, Wednesday, Sept. 9, 2020. Javier Humberto Ordonez, 46, died in hospital after receiving repeated electric shocks with a stun gun from officers who detained him for violating social distancing rules to curb the spread of the coronavirus. (AP Photo/Ivan Valencia)
A worker disinfects a classroom in preparation for reopening schools that were closed in March, in Karachi, Pakistan, Thursday, Sept. 10, 2020. Education officials in Pakistan say authorities will start reopening schools from Sept. 15 amid a steady decline in coronavirus deaths and infections. (AP Photo/Fareed Khan)
Policía de la provincia de Buenos Aires protesta para pedir mejores salarios y condiciones de trabajo en medio de la pandemia del nuevo coronavirus en La Matanza, a las afueras de Buenos Aires, Argentina, el miércoles 9 de septiembre de 2020. (AP Foto/Natacha Pisarenko)
An electoral observer sits at a polling station during Tigrays regional elections, in the town of Tikul, 15 kms east from Mekele, Ethiopia, on September 9, 2020. - Ethiopia's northern Tigray region vote on September 9, 2020 in parliamentary elections that Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed's government has deemed illegal. Polls opened at 6am (0300 GMT) across the mountainous northern Tigray region despite a federal decision to postpone all elections because of the coronavirus pandemic. (Photo by EDUARDO SOTERAS / AFP) (Photo by EDUARDO SOTERAS/AFP via Getty Images)
09 September 2020, North Rhine-Westphalia, Brühl: Commissioner candidates will take their oath at the swearing-in ceremony of the Cologne, Bonn and Aachen police forces in front of Augustusburg Castle, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Due to the corona protection measures, there will be no joint celebration this time, but several smaller events. Photo: Rolf Vennenbernd/dpa (Photo by Rolf Vennenbernd/picture alliance via Getty Images)
DEIR AL-BALAH, GAZA - SEPTEMBER 09: A baby is seen as routine vaccination of babies are started after 20 days under the measures taken against the coronavirus (COVID-19) in Deir al Balah, Gaza on September 09, 2020. (Photo by Ashraf Amra/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)
PATNA, INDIA SEPTEMBER 8: A waiter wear PPE coveralls serve food to customers at Hotel Panache, on September 8, 2020 in Patna, India. (Photo by Santosh Kumar/Hindustan Times via Getty Images)
Pope Francis takes off his face mask as he arrives during his weekly general audience in San Damaso courtyard at the Vatican, Wednesday, Sept. 9, 2020. (Photo by Massimo Valicchia/NurPhoto via Getty Images)
MOSCOW, RUSSIA - SEPTEMBER 9, 2020: A medical worker gives a volunteer a trial vaccine against COVID-19 at Moscow's N62 Outpatient Clinic in a post-registration phase of testing. Sergei Bobylev/TASS (Photo by Sergei Bobylev\TASS via Getty Images)
MUMBAI, INDIA SEPTEMBER 8: BMC medical staff conducts Swab Test, Rapid Integen Test and malaria test of Police personnel posted at Shivaji Park Police station, Dadar, on September 8, 2020 in Mumbai, India. (Photo by Anshuman Poyrekar/Hindustan Times via Getty Images)
A school staff controls the temperature to young student which wears face mask protection to prevent the spread of the coronavirus before entering to Labastida Ikastola school, in the small basque town of Labastida, northern Spain, Tuesday, Sept. 8, 2020. Spanish students return to class for the first time since the pandemic paralyzed Spain six months ago. (AP Photo/Alvaro Barrientos)
Tim Declercq of Deceuninck - Quick - Step and Kasper Asgreen of Deceuninck - Quick - Step pictured at the start of the ninth stage of the 107th edition of the Tour de France cycling race from Ile d'Oleron Le Chateau-d'Oleron to Ile de Re Saint-Martin-de-Re (168,5km), in France, Tuesday 08 September 2020. This year's Tour de France was postponed due to the worldwide Covid-19 pandemic. The 2020 race starts in Nice on Saturday 29 August and ends on 20 September. BELGA PHOTO POOL PETER DE VOECHT (Photo by POOL PETER DE VOECHT/BELGA MAG/AFP via Getty Images)
Myanmar leader Aung San Suu Kyi fastens the flag of the National League for Democracy party during a ceremony to mark the first day of election campaigning at the party's temporary headquarters in Naypyitaw, Myanmar on Tuesday, Sept. 8, 2020. Myanmar holds a general election on Nov. 8 and began a sixty-day election campaign period Tuesday, which may be disrupted due to a resurgence of the coronavirus. (AP Photo/Aung Shine Oo)
Attendees wearing face masks watch an event to honor some of those involved in China's fight against COVID-19 at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, Tuesday, Sept. 8, 2020. Chinese leader Xi Jinping is praising China's role in battling the global coronavirus pandemic and expressing support for the U.N.'s World Health Organization, in a repudiation of U.S. criticism and a bid to rally domestic support for Communist Party leadership. (AP Photo/Mark Schiefelbein)
A general view shows chairs installed at Tel Aviv's Rabin Square to symbolise the 1,000 coronavirus deaths in Israel, on September 7, 2020. - Once a role model in the fight against Covid-19, Israel decided the previous day to partially lock down several cities to slow the fast-spreading contagion as the government faces harsh criticism over the crisis. Israel passed the milestone of 1,000 novel coronavirus deaths this weekend after the toll tripled over the summer. (Photo by JACK GUEZ / AFP) (Photo by JACK GUEZ/AFP via Getty Images)
Children wearing protective face masks arrive at school on September 7, 2020 in Zagreb. - School started in Croatia today with the implementation of epidemiological measures to combat the covid-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus. (Photo by DENIS LOVROVIC / AFP) (Photo by DENIS LOVROVIC/AFP via Getty Images)
A woman pushes a cart with plastic containers filled with potable water from a pumping plant at Las Margaritas neighborhood, after a failure in the water supply network that has affected residents for a month, as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak continues, in Soyapango, El Salvador August 19, 2020. Picture taken August 19, 2020. REUTERS/Jose Cabezas
MUMBAI, INDIA - SEPTEMBER 6: Healthcare workers during COVID-19 screening and swab test at Vileparle(E), on September 6, 2020 in Mumbai, India. (Photo by Satyabrata Tripathy/Hindustan Times via Getty Images)
RAMALLAH, WEST BANK - SEPTEMBER 06: Palestinian students wearing protective face masks start face-to-face learning at Al-Birah Primary school as schools which have been closed due to the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic since March, resume for first, second, third and fourth grade students under Covid-19 measures in Ramallah, West Bank on September 06, 2020. (Photo by Issam Rimawi/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)
Devotees sit aside of a road in front of their houses to watch the celebrations of the Rato (Red) Machindranath Chariot festival after the government imposed ban on public gatherings as preventive measure against the Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic, in Lalitpur, on the outskirts of Kathmandu on September 6, 2020. - The centuries-old procession was supposed to begin at the end of April but was delayed when a nationwide coronavirus lockdown was imposed on March 24. Although restrictions were eased in July, curbs were imposed again on August 20 as coronavirus cases surged. Only essential services are allowed on the streets. (Photo by PRAKASH MATHEMA / AFP) (Photo by PRAKASH MATHEMA/AFP via Getty Images)
Performers pull a chariot during the Rato (Red) Machindranath Chariot festival after the government imposed ban on public gatherings as preventive measure against the Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic, in Lalitpur, on the outskirts of Kathmandu on September 6, 2020. - The centuries-old procession was supposed to begin at the end of April but was delayed when a nationwide coronavirus lockdown was imposed on March 24. Although restrictions were eased in July, curbs were imposed again on August 20 as coronavirus cases surged. Only essential services are allowed on the streets. (Photo by PRAKASH MATHEMA / AFP) (Photo by PRAKASH MATHEMA/AFP via Getty Images)
Police detain people as they patrol the area after protesters called for a rally in Hong Kong on September 6, 2020 to protest against the government's decision to postpone the legislative council election due to the COVID-19 coronavirus, and the national security law. - Nearly 100 people were arrested by Hong Kong police on September 6 as riot officers swooped on democracy protesters opposed to the postponement of local elections. (Photo by DALE DE LA REY / AFP) (Photo by DALE DE LA REY/AFP via Getty Images)
BEIJING, CHINA - SEPTEMBER 06: A bionic fish on display during the 2020 China International Fair for Trade in Services (CIFTIS) at Beijing Olympic Park on September 6, 2020 in Beijing, China. As China recovers from the COVID-19 epidemic, about 2,000 Chinese and foreign enterprises will participate and showcase their newest technology in public health and digital technology in the China International Fair for Trade in Services. (Photo by Lintao Zhang/Getty Images)
LARUNS, FRANCE - SEPTEMBER 06: Start / Podium / Domenico Pozzovivo of Italy and NTT Pro Cycling Team / Pau Village / Mask / Covid Safety Measures / during the 107th Tour de France 2020, Stage 9 a 153km stage from Pau to Laruns 495m / #TDF2020 / @LeTour / on September 06, 2020 in Laruns, France. (Photo by Tim de Waele/Getty Images)
TOPSHOT - Iranian actress Shamila Shirzad wears a face mask during a photocall for the film "Khorshid" (Sun Children) presented in competition on the fifth day of the 77th Venice Film Festival, on September 6, 2020 at Venice Lido, during the COVID-19 infection, caused by the novel coronavirus. (Photo by Tiziana FABI / AFP) (Photo by TIZIANA FABI/AFP via Getty Images)
A girl clad in mask poses for a picture during an awareness session about COVID-19 coronavirus disease held by a local kindergarten in Gaza City on August 10, 2020, as education facilities in the Palestinian enclave re-opened for the new 2020-2021 academic year following an easing of pandemic restrictions. (Photo by Mohammed ABED / AFP) (Photo by MOHAMMED ABED/AFP via Getty Images)
SYDNEY, NSW - SEPTEMBER 05: Police take away a woman during the Freedom Day Rally on September 05, 2020 in Sydney, Australia. Protesters argue COVID-19 is a hoax and say their freedoms are being unfairly impinged. Demonstrations are also taking place in every Australian capital city and several regional areas, including Byron Bay. (Photo by Speed Media/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)
Re-enactors in World War One (WWI) French army uniform, wear protective nose and mouth masks against the novel coronavirus, Covid-19, as they participate in a two day event to mark the 106th anniversary of the Battle of the Marne which took place in September 1914 and which resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west, in Meaux on September 5, 2020. (Photo by JOEL SAGET / AFP) (Photo by JOEL SAGET/AFP via Getty Images)
ROME, ITALY - SEPTEMBER 05: People protest for personal freedoms and against the Italian government restrictions related to the Coronavirus pandemic on September 5, 2020 in Rome, Italy. A demonstration organized by "No Mask", COVID-19 deniers and far-right political parties to protest against Italian government restrictions related to the Coronavirus pandemic. According to the Ministry of Health, Coronavirus infection rates are climbing again in Italy. (Photo by Antonio Masiello/Getty Images)
ROME, ITALY - SEPTEMBER 05: A man holds a photo of Bill Gates and an inscription reading " The Antichrist 666"during the protest from "No Mask" movements on September 5, 2020 in Rome, Italy. A demonstration organized by "No Mask", COVID-19 deniers and far-right political parties to protest against Italian government restrictions related to the Coronavirus pandemic. According to the Ministry of Health, Coronavirus infection rates are climbing again in Italy. (Photo by Stefano Montesi - Corbis/Corbis via Getty Images)
SYDNEY, NSW - SEPTEMBER 05: A woman talks to the police during the Freedom Day Rally on September 05, 2020 in Sydney, Australia. Protesters argue COVID-19 is a hoax and say their freedoms are being unfairly impinged. Demonstrations are also taking place in every Australian capital city and several regional areas, including Byron Bay. (Photo by Speed Media/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)
MALAGA, SPAIN - 2020/09/05: Protesters dressed in green t-shirts while holding hands during the demonstration at Plaza de la Marina square in favour of public education and to demand more safety measures at schools amid Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. Spain lives its second wave outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with thousands of people infected every day while most of schools reopen for thousands of students and teachers that return to classrooms. Mandatory faces masks, social distancing and use of sanitizers are some of measures implemented at schools and universities. (Photo by Jesus Merida/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images)
ZAGREB, CROATIA - SEPTEMBER 5: Croatians take part in Anti-COVID Freedom Festival at Jelacic Square in Zagreb, Croatia on September 5, 2020. (Photo by Stipe Majic/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)
MADRID, SPAIN - 2020/09/05: A man wearing IPE (Individual Protection Equipment) protesting during a demonstration against the mandatory use of face masks, the use of a vaccine against coronavirus, the implementation of 5G, and other measures adopted by the Spanish government to prevent the spread of coronavirus in Spain as COVID-19 positive cases continue to increase. (Photo by Marcos del Mazo/LightRocket via Getty Images)
A Palestinian demonstrator wearing a protective face mask, to protect from COVID-19, stands by during clashes following a weekly demonstration against Israeli Jewish settlements, in the West Bank village of Kafr Qaddum near Nablus, Friday, Sept. 4, 2020.(AP Photo/Majdi Mohammed)
A group of young students wearing face mask protection to prevent the spread of the coronavirus wait outside to enter in a state school in Pamplona, northern Spain, Friday, Sept. 4, 2020. After six months with all Spanish schools closed by crisis of COVID-19, today is opening a new school year with new rules to prevent the pandemic coronavirus. (AP Photo/Alvaro Barrientos)
Francisco Espana, 60, looks at the Mediterranean sea from a promenade next to the "Hospital del Mar" in Barcelona, Spain, Friday, Sept. 4, 2020. Francisco spent 52 days in the Intensive Care unit at the hospital due to coronavirus, but today he was allowed by his doctors to spend almost ten minutes at the seaside as part of his recovery therapy. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
A man lays inside a mock coffin as punishment for violating city regulations requiring people to wear face masks in public places as a precaution against the new coronavirus outbreak in Jakarta, Indonesia, Thursday, Sept. 3, 2020. (AP Photo/Achmad Ibrahim)
Director Pedro Almodovar, left, and actress Tilda Swinton pose during the photo call for the movie 'The human voice' during the 77th edition of the Venice Film Festival at the Venice Lido, Italy, Thursday, Sep. 3, 2020. The Venice Film Festival goes from Sept. 2 through Sept. 12. Italy was among the countries hardest hit by the coronavirus pandemic, and the festival will serve as a celebration of its re-opening and a sign that the film world, largely on pause since March, is coming back as well. (AP Photo/Domenico Stinellis)
Nepalese protesters defying a government coronavirus lockdown to take part in a religious festival clash with riot police, in Lalitpur, Nepal, Thursday, Sept. 3, 2020. A 5-story-high chariot holding a statue of the deity Rato Machindranath was built but parked for months because of government orders not hold the annual festival due to fear over the spread of the coronavirus. The statue is normally pulled around the city for a month. Police officers in riot gear blocked the protesters when they moved the chariot, dousing them with water cannons. (AP Photo/Niranjan Shrestha)
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The evidence also suggests that the "empathetic and decisive" communication style by women improved the immediate outcomes from the pandemic striking their nations.

Because only 19 of the 149 countries in the study were led by women, the researchers needed to factor for these nations perhaps having specific characteristics that allow them to respond better in crises.

So they used a "nearest neighbour matching method" to compare similar nations on characteristics of GDP per capita, population, proportion of people living in urban areas and the share of elderly citizens.

"After controlling for this, we find that female-led countries have significantly fewer deaths and also spread of Covid-19 than countries led by men," Prof Garikipati wrote.

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