Copenhagen in Denmark and Bern in Switzerland have scooped the joint top spot as the most “liveable” cities in the world, according to an annual study.
The research, from global mobility experts, ECA (Employment Conditions Abroad) International analyses conditions in cities for Europeans who are relocating, including those from the UK.
It takes into account factors including health services, housing and utilities, access to a social network and leisure facilities, infrastructure, climate, personal safety, political tensions and air quality.
The top two positions were unchanged from 2019, with several UK cities coming lower down the rankings.
Edinburgh retained its position in joint 19th place alongside Stockholm in Sweden.
Dublin kept its spot in joint 9th, alongside Gothenburg in Sweden and Luxembourg.
Meanwhile, Aberdeen was placed at number 21. Cardiff was at 24, with Manchester at 39, Belfast and London both in 47th place and Glasgow at 55.
Neil Ashman, senior location ratings analyst at ECA International, said: “Pollution, crime rate and terrorism threats are among the factors that affect the liveability of major UK cities such as London, Manchester, Belfast and Glasgow.
“Europeans relocating for work or looking to move abroad can expect a better quality of life in many locations in Ireland, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany or Norway; countries that dominate the top 20 of our rankings.”
He continued: “Northern European cities in places such as Scandinavia, the Netherlands and Switzerland, have consistently scored well for expat liveability.
“Excellent transport links, a high standard of healthcare and long-term political stability, mean that overseas workers from elsewhere in Europe can adapt to these locations with ease.”