What are towns and cities outside London doing to tackle vehicle emissions?

A “patchwork approach” to pollution charging will be “bewildering” for drivers, a motoring research charity has warned.

Analysis by the RAC Foundation found that local authorities across Britain are planning to introduce schemes with a variety of rules, following the launch of the ultra-low emission zone in London.

The measures will mean certain vehicles will be liable for a charge in some towns and cities but not others.

RAC Foundation director Steve Gooding said: “With good reason, councils around the country are looking to follow where London is leading and improve air quality. But a patchwork approach to rule setting, where every town and city appears to have differing sets of restrictions, charges and penalties, can appear bewildering.

“Some sort of regulatory uniformity will not only increase compliance but also allow drivers and businesses to buy vehicles they know they will be able to use in the future, albeit possibly at an additional cost.”

Here are some of the plans to improve air quality in Britain, based on analysis by the charity:

Bath: Plan for higher emission vehicles except cars to be charged to drive in the city centre from late 2020.

Non-compliant buses, coaches and lorries will be charged £100 a day, while taxis, minicabs, vans and minibuses will pay £9.

Birmingham: A proposed clean air zone is expected to come into operation in January 2020.

Older buses, coaches and lorries will be charged £50 per day, while cars, taxis, minicabs, vans and minibuses will be charged £8.

Glasgow: A low emission zone restricting the movement of older buses is already in place.

From January 2023 restrictions will extend to older coaches, lorries, taxis, minicabs, vans, minibuses, cars and motorcycles.

Greater Manchester: Proposal that from 2021 older taxis, minicabs, vans and minibuses will pay £7.50 per day, while buses, coaches and lorries will pay £100.

Leeds: A 24/7 clean air zone has been approved for January 2020.

This will see the most polluting taxis, minicabs and vans facing a £12.50 daily fee, while buses, coaches and lorries will pay £50.

Sheffield: A low emission zone has been proposed for older taxis, minicabs, vans and minibuses, but no start date, hours of operation or daily charge has been confirmed.

Elsewhere: There are restrictions on older buses in Oxford, while Brighton and York will introduce similar schemes in 2020.

Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Dundee have all committed to having low emission zones by 2021.

Other places including Coventry, Derby, Leicester, Liverpool and Tyneside are at various stages of deciding or implementing measures to improve air quality.

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