A four-year-old girl who told a teacher how she "hurt" when going to the toilet had been subjected to female genital mutilation, a family court judge has concluded.
School staff raised concerns after the girl, whose parents are Somalian, complained and social workers began family court litigation.
Judge Vera Mayer analysed evidence at a private family court hearing in Barnet, north London.
A paediatrician who examined the girl had told the judge how the youngster said: "Mummy cut me ... I was brave."
The judge decided the youngster had "undergone a procedure to her genitalia".
The judge said, in a ruling on the case, she could not be sure "who did it" or "what exactly was done".
She has not identified the youngster but said social services bosses at Barnet Council had welfare responsibilities for the youngster.