Specially-trained staff were sent into HMP Moorland to quell trouble between inmates on Sunday night.
One prisoner was injured in the "isolated incident" between a "small number" of inmates on one wing of the facility near Doncaster, South Yorkshire, the Prison Service said.
The Category C prison holds around 1,000 inmates, one of whom is reportedly footballer Adam Johnson who was jailed for six years for engaging in sexual activity with a 15-year-old girl.
HM Inspectorate of Prisons found "levels of violence were high" in its latest inspection of the jail in February.
The incident comes in a turbulent period for the Prison Service in which it faced accusations of being "in meltdown" when staff walked out over health and safety concerns.
Two inmates managed to escape from Pentonville Prison, weeks after inmate Jamal Mahmoud, 21, was allegedly murdered there.
A Prison Service spokeswoman said no staff were hurt and the injured prisoner did not require hospital treatment during the trouble that started on Sunday evening and was brought under control by around 1:30am on Monday.
She added: "We are absolutely clear that prisoners who behave in this way will be punished and could spend significantly longer behind bars."
The spokeswoman would not comment on whether Johnson was involved in the incident.