An apple falling to Earth and a Soyuz rocket are both featured on the official logo of Tim Peake's mission, Principia.
The design, the work of 13-year-old Troy Wood, was chosen by Major Peake himself after more than 3,000 children entered a competition on BBC TV's Blue Peter.
The mission name was also suggested by members of the public, with more than 4,000 contributors offering ideas.
Naturalis Principia Mathematica was Sir Isaac Newton's world-changing text on the laws of gravity and motion, which still provides the basic rules for spaceflight.
Both name and logo symbolise a key feature of the mission - to reach out and connect with ordinary people, especially future generations of scientists.
Major Peake is due to spend just under six months on the International Space Station (ISS). Originally due to end in May, his mission will now last until June 5 after it was extended.
The 173-day mission will be the sixth longest undertaken by an Esa astronaut.
On the ISS, Major Peake will conduct more than 30 experiments, including studies aimed at seeing how his own body responds to weightlessness.
He will also attempt to grow protein crystals and blood vessel cells, and to melt metals floating in microgravity to investigate their properties.
In addition the astronaut will carry more than a million rocket seeds with him to the space station. When he returns to Earth, they will be distributed to thousands of British schools and grown to see if they have been affected by six months in space.
Linking up with schools is an important aspect of the mission, and Major Peake will also maintain a very visible presence on social media.
School activities running alongside the mission range from computer coding and maths demonstrations to fitness and nutrition.
Children from a number of schools will be given the chance to contact Major Peake on the space station using amateur radio.