Most people in England cannot travel to work without using a motorised form of transport, according to new research.
The study found that 44% of workers are able to commute by either walking or cycling.
The report by Dr Ian Philips, of the University of Leeds, discovered that people's ability to continue to get to work in the event of a fuel shortage varies significantly depending on their location.
Dr Philips, who will present his research to the Royal Geographical Society's annual conference at the University of Exeter, said: "The factors that affect your chances of being able to get to work depend on where you live, meaning the results of this study are particularly useful when mapped for small areas.
"For example, bicycle availability has a bigger effect in Cambridge than in Sheffield."
Areas classed as countryside or prospering suburbs were most likely to have a low capacity for walking or cycling to work.
Districts on the outskirts of London scored particularly poorly, with locations such as Epping Forest, Sevenoaks and Tandridge scoring below 35%.
The Isles of Scilly was the district with the highest figure at around 80%.
The study included statistics from the 2001 Census, the 2008 Health Survey for England and Ordnance Survey boundary data.