Oliver Sacks, the neurologist and author of The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat, has died aged 82, his publicist confirmed.
Jacqueline Graham confirmed his death on Twitter, writing that he was "the most remarkable, special, irreplaceable person" who was a "a joy and privilege to know and work with".
His personal assistant, Kate Edgar, told the New York Times that Dr Sacks died on Sunday at his home in New York City from cancer.
Dr Sacks had a "life well-lived", according to the author JK Rowling.
In a tribute on Twitter, Rowling said Dr Sacks was a "great, humane and inspirational" man.
The biologist and atheist Richard Dawkins also paid tribute to the neurologist, writing that Dr Sacks was "greatly admired him" and was "sad to hear of his death".
In February, Dr Sacks announced that his "luck has run out" after he was diagnosed with the liver cancer.
In an op-ed for the American newspaper, he said that he had multiple metastases in the liver, and was now "face to face with dying".
"It is up to me now to choose how to live out the months that remain to me. I have to live in the richest, deepest, most productive way I can," he said.
The London-born academic was the author of several books about unusual medical conditions including Awakenings, The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat and The Island Of The Colorblind.
Awakenings was based on his work with patients who were treated with a drug that woke them up after years in a catatonic state.
The film version, starring Robert De Niro and Robin Williams, was nominated for three Oscars - including Best Picture, in 1991.
Dr Sacks was awarded several honorary degrees recognising his contribution to science and literature, and was made a CBE in 2008 in the Queen's Birthday Honours.