One in four employees say money worries have affected their ability to do their job.
Women (28%) were more likely to say this was the case than men (23%), research among 1,800 UK employees showed.
This might be a reflection of women tending to work in lower-paid jobs than men, the report added.
Overall, 25% of workers reported money worries had affected their performance, according to the survey from HR body the CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) and Close Brothers Asset Management.
Others likely to be affected by money worries were those under general pressure at work on a daily basis, people who were unhappy with their pay, younger workers aged between 18 and 34 and workers based in London, where living costs tend to be higher.
The problem was found to be particularly likely to upset those working in the public sector, where 30% of employees said they were affected.
Nearly three in 10 (28%) earning less than £15,000 a year said money concerns got in the way of their work.
But the problem extends up the pay scale - troubling one in five (20%) employees earning £45,000 to £59,999 and one in seven (14%) of those on £60,000 or more.
Nearly a third (30%) of those earning £35,000 to £44,999 said financial worries affected them.
The report said: "Furthermore, more than one in five (21%) senior managers and over one in four (27%) middle managers report that money fears affect their work, indicating that money worries affect all income groups."
Feeling tired at work because of sleep loss was the most common way in which fretting about money affected job performance, the survey found.
Employees also reported that they found it hard to concentrate and make decisions, they spent time during the working day dealing with financial problems and they had to take time off to deal with them while some said their financial woes caused them health problems.
Charles Cotton, reward and performance adviser at the CIPD, said: "Money worries affect people regardless of their age, gender or level of pay and, with one in four admitting it negatively impacts their work, it's clear that organisations should be focusing on financial wellbeing as part of their workplace agenda.
"This will become increasingly important over the next 18 months, as rising inflation is likely to lead to a pay squeeze and increased concerns about personal finances."
Jeanette Makings, head of financial education at Close Brothers Asset Management, added: "Pensions changes, increasing life expectancy, uncertain economic times, rising inflation and constant changes to the tax system mean that the financial landscape has never been more difficult to navigate."