More than a fifth of all out-of-work benefit claims are made by offenders, official estimates have shown.
Some 22% of all out-of-work benefit claims - including Jobseeker's Allowance - open on December 1 2012 were being made by people who had been cautioned or convicted for an offence between January 1 2000 and December 1 2012.
The study of 4.3 million offenders in England and Wales, who were matched to at least one benefit or employment record, shows 41% were claiming benefits one month before they were convicted, cautioned or released from prison.
And more than half of offenders - 54% - released from prison were claiming out-of-work benefits one month after, gradually decreasing to 42% two years after.
The findings come from data shared between the Ministry of Justice (MoJ), the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) and Her Majesty"s Revenue and Customs (HMRC).
Ministers at the MoJ are pushing rehabilitation reforms through Parliament, which among other measures, aim to set up a "through the prison gate" resettlement service to provide continuous support from custody into the community. It is hoped the changes will work alongside the Work Programme, the Government's welfare-to-work programme introduced in 2011.
"We are committed to delivering long needed changes that will see all offenders released from prison receive targeted support to finally turn themselves around and start contributing to society."
Just under a third of working age offenders - those aged 18 to 62 - who were convicted, cautioned or released from prison in 2010/2011 were claiming out-of-work benefits two years before, the figures show.
This increased to 41% one month before and 44% one month after, but the proportion then decreases gradually to 39% two years after - 7 percentage points higher than two years before conviction, caution or release.
Offenders released from prison were more likely than all offenders to claim benefits in the two years following release from jail - nearly 80% of offenders released from prison in 2010/2011 made at least one claim in that period.
In particular, offenders released from prison were more likely to claim Jobseeker's Allowance (JSA), with 62% making at least one JSA claim at some point in the two-year period.
Employment rates, excluding self-employment, cash-in-hand and some lower paid jobs, were stable for offenders aged 21 to 62 either side of caution, conviction or release from prison, with 38% in employment both one year before and one year after.
A prison spell appears to have a greater short-term impact on the employment rate for adult offenders, which falls from 21% one month before sentence to 17% at release and 19% one month after release, the figures show.
However, one year after release employment rates for adult prison leavers have recovered to 24%, the same level as one year before sentence.
Just over half of working age offenders had at least one start in employment at some point in the two years following their conviction, caution or release from prison in 2010/2011.
However, this falls to 36% when looking at offenders released from prison only.
Around a third - 30% - of working age offenders who were convicted, cautioned or released from prison in 2003/04 had no recorded employment over the next nine years to 2012/2013. However, a fifth of these spent almost all of the next nine years in employment.