The broadcaster said it was "fantastic" to be working with the firm, which has come under criticism for charging high interest rates.
The show, called Go Hard or Go Home, will feature members of the public taking part in a series of tough endurance challenges including a 127-mile cycle race across the Pyrenees and a Californian triathlon.
It is produced by Channel 5 but paid for by Wonga, who helped develop the idea with presenter Hannah White.
Jason Wells, Channel 5 acting commissioning executive for factual and features, said: "This is a very exciting new commission for Channel 5 and it's fantastic to be working with Hannah White and Wonga.
"Viewers will enjoy watching Hannah put the competitors through their paces in these life-changing challenges. It's really important to show our regular viewers that the opportunity to completely change their lives for the better is possible for all of them."
The entire payday lending industry, worth £2 billion, was referred last month for a full-blown investigation by the Competition Commission after the trading watchdog uncovered ''deep-rooted'' problems with the industry.
The Archbishop of Canterbury also entered the fray today, warning Wonga that the Church of England wants to "compete" it out of existence as part of its plans to expand credit unions as an alternative to payday lenders.
The Most Rev Justin Welby said he had delivered the message to Errol Damelin, chief executive of Wonga, during a "very good conversation".
"I've met the head of Wonga and we had a very good conversation and I said to him quite bluntly: 'We're not in the business of trying to legislate you out of existence, we're trying to compete you out of existence'," Mr Welby told Total Politics magazine.
"He's a businessman, he took that well."
Solo sailor White, who has crossed the Atlantic single-handed three times, was criticised by MP Stella Creasy who has campaigned against payday lenders.
She said: "Hannah White may be used to sailing the high seas, but the legal loan sharks preying on communities like mine are a very different to those under the oceans.
"Whilst she profits from these companies, other celebrities are taking a more principled stand and joining the sharkstoppers campaign by refusing to promote payday loan companies until there is reform of the industry.
"We've seen how these companies use such individuals to try to make themselves appear respectable and loveable when the truth is very different, especially for the millions of Britons now struggling with payday loan debt.
"I urge Hannah to come to Walthamstow and learn for herself the truth about her new friends and the damage they are doing to our country."