The Austerity Uncovered bus will start from Dudley in the West Midlands and visit towns and cities across the country until the end of the month.
The union organisation said it will gather information from food banks, unemployed centres, charities, companies and voluntary organisations.
TUC general secretary Frances O'Grady said: "The Government's economic policies are not working. Growth is virtually non-existent, unemployment remains stubbornly high and millions of working people are struggling to make ends meet as wages fall but prices go on rising.
"In towns and cities across the UK, the household finances of low and middle income earners are under huge pressure. As local services are cut and families see their benefits changed, frozen or taken away entirely, it's not surprising that most ordinary people believe they are paying the price for a crisis they did nothing to cause.
"Over the next two weeks the TUC will be out and about in many communities, urging people to come forward and tell us their stories of how austerity is causing such pain to them, their families and their friends.
The Wales TUC and Scottish TUC will hold their own tours, while unions will also hire buses as part of the initiative.