How are other countries responding to a rise in coronavirus cases?

Talk of tiers, levels, local lockdowns and circuit-breakers is dominating the UK and Ireland, but how are other countries handling a rise in coronavirus cases?

Here’s a look at the restrictions imposed – or loosened – elsewhere.

– France

Belgium EU Summit
Belgium EU Summit

President Emmanuel Macron announced a 9pm to 6am curfew for nine French cities last week as new daily infections peaked at more than 30,000.

The measure, which came into force on Saturday and is due to last at least four weeks, affects almost 20 million people in cities including Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Lille and Toulouse.

Mr Macron also reinstated the state of health emergency for France which ended three months ago.

– Germany

Virus Outbreak Germany
Virus Outbreak Germany

German Chancellor Angela Merkel has urged people to avoid unnecessary travel, cancel parties and remain at home wherever possible.

While Germany was praised for its response to the first wave of Covid-19, case numbers have rapidly climbed over recent weeks, setting a new record of 7,830 on Saturday.

Mrs Merkel has called on Germans to obey the rules like they did earlier this year.

– Italy

Virus Outbreak Italy
Virus Outbreak Italy

Italian Premier Giuseppe Conte announced new measures at the weekend meaning that mayors can close public squares after 9pm, permitting access only to reach homes or businesses – a move that stops short of the stricter French curfew.

Restaurants and bars can only operate with table service after 6pm, but can stay open until midnight, while local festivals have been banned.

With more testing in place, new daily infections in Italy have doubled in a week to more than 10,000.

– Netherlands

Belgium EU Summit
Belgium EU Summit

Prime Minister Mark Rutte said last week that the country needed to move a step closer to a full lockdown due to the spread of the virus, with cases increasing by some 60% in a week.

As of last Wednesday, bars and restaurants were closed, the sale of alcohol after 8pm was banned and households could receive no more than three guests per day.

People were also advised to limit their use of public transport as much as possible.

– Czech Republic

Virus Outbreak Czech Republic
Virus Outbreak Czech Republic

A surge in infections in the Czech Republic in recent weeks has made it one of Europe’s worst-hit countries.

Restrictions include a ban on sports competitions, the closure of bars and restaurants, and a ban on public gatherings of more than six people.

The new measures sparked a violent protest in Prague at the weekend.

– Australia

Restrictions in Melbourne have been eased, with residents no longer limited in the time they can spend away from home for education or socialising.

Restrictions allowing people to travel three miles from home have been increased to 15 miles, and outdoor gatherings of up to 10 people from two households will be allowed.

The partial reopening of shops, bars and restaurants will begin on November 2.