Primary school class sizes should be limited to 15 pupils, desks should be spaced as far apart as possible and outdoor space should be utilised, the Government's new guidance says.
The guidelines, from the Department for Education (DfE), advises schools to stagger lunch and break times, as well as drop-off and pick-up times, to reduce the number of pupils moving around.
Schools should also consider introducing one-way circulation, or placing a divider down the middle of the corridor, to keep young people apart.
The transmission rate of #coronavirus has decreased.So we are asking primary schools in England to plan for wider opening from 1 June for children in key transition years – nursery, reception, year 1 and year 6.
— Department for Education (@educationgovuk) May 11, 2020
The advice, published by the department on Monday evening, suggests that nurseries and schools should remove soft furnishings and toys that are hard to clean – and try to keep children in the same small groups at all times each day.
It comes after the Government announced its ambition for all primary school pupils in England to go back to school for a month before the summer.
The Government expects children to be able to return to nurseries and childcare settings, and for Reception, Year one and Year six pupils to be back in school, from June 1 at the earliest.
Teaching unions have warned that the plan is "reckless" and the ambition for all year groups to return to primary schools by summer is not "feasible".
More than 440,000 people have signed a petition urging the Government to give parents a choice on sending their children back to school if they reopen.
The Government has said families who choose to keep their children at home when schools reopen will not face fines.
But parents will be strongly encouraged to take up these places – unless the child or a family member is shielding, or the child is particularly vulnerable.
The new Government guidance – on how schools, nurseries and childcare providers can safely reopen to more pupils – says most staff in education settings will not require PPE when they open up.
But it adds that it should be worn by a supervising adult if a pupil becomes unwell with symptoms of coronavirus while in the setting.
Children and staff are not required to wear a face covering or face mask in schools and early years settings.
The advice says that demand for childcare is "likely to be lower than usual" and so staff-to-child ratios "should allow for small group working".
But it adds that in some cases, it may be necessary for childcare providers to introduce a temporary cap on numbers to ensure that safety is prioritised.
Schools, colleges and nurseries closed seven weeks ago due to the coronavirus outbreak, remaining open only for vulnerable youngsters and the children of key workers.
"School leaders do not want to see classrooms empty for a day longer than they need be - but there is not a school leader in the land who wants to risk admitting more pupils unless it is safe to do so." says @PaulWhiteman6#coronavirushttps://t.co/qsSHVmN2wY
— NAHT (@NAHTnews) May 11, 2020
The Government's 50-page Covid-19 recovery strategy, released on Monday afternoon, said that secondary schools and further education colleges should prepare to begin some "face-to-face contact" with Year 10 and 12 students.
Now guidance from the DfE says that alternative provision settings should also offer face-to-face support for students in Year 11 as well as Year 10.
Education Secretary Gavin Williamson said: "I know how hard schools, colleges, early years settings and parents are working to make sure children and young people can continue to learn at home, and I cannot thank them enough for that.
"But nothing can replace being in the classroom, which is why I want to get children back to school as soon as it is safe to do so."
He added: "The latest scientific advice indicates it will be safe for more children to return to school from June 1, but we will continue to limit the overall numbers in school and introduce protective measures to prevent transmission.
"This marks the first step towards having all young people back where they belong – in nurseries, schools and colleges – but we will continue to be led by the scientific evidence and will only take further steps when the time is right."