Jeremy Corbyn sought to heap pressure on Theresa May to publish her full tax return as figures released by Labour showed he paid almost £50,000 to the Exchequer.
The Labour leader received a total income of £136,762 - including his salary as an MP, pay for his role as leader of the opposition and pensions - and paid a total of £48,079.80 in tax.
Mr Corbyn said: "Tax avoidance and evasion deprive our public services of tens of billions of pounds every year and will only be tackled if we have the political will to do it.
"We cannot expect the public to trust us as party leaders, if we are not prepared to be open and honest about our own tax arrangements."
Mrs May published her tax returns while running for the Tory leadership in 2016 but did not do so last year despite Mr Corbyn releasing his.
Shadow chancellor John McDonnell received a total income of £87,353 and paid a total of £24,099.20 in tax, Labour said.
Mr McDonnell said: "I have again published my full tax return.
"I have done this every year as shadow chancellor because I believe if you aspire to be in charge of the nation's finances then you should be as open and transparent about your own income as possible.
"It is right that people in high office are subject to a high degree of scrutiny and I call on the Prime Minister and Chancellor to follow suit and publish their tax returns in full."