%VIRTUAL-SkimlinksPromo%Stay one step ahead of the fraudsters with our series of articles giving you the lowdown on the scams they use to trick people out of their hard-earned cash - and how to avoid being taken in by them.
This week, recruitment fraud, which involves people being targeted with offers of fake jobs and training.
How does it work?
Recruitment, or employment, fraud comes in several guises. You might, for example, be contacted someone claiming to be an employer or a recruitment agent who has seen your CV on an online job site and wants to interview you.
In many cases, the job you are offered is overseas and the fraudsters will contact you saying that you need to sort out your travel, accommodation and visas - for which you have to pay fee such as a visa administration charge.
However, there is no job and any money you send will be gone for good. Worse still, those who send their bank account details for salary payments to be set up may also have extra cash stolen from their accounts.
Another common employment-related scam known as business opportunity fraud involves advertisements or websites that offer the chance to make money by working from home, for example by filling envelopes or by setting up a website to sell goods or services.
You will be asked to pay money up front to register with the scheme, set up your web site or buy products to sell on. But you will get nothing back.
How can I avoid being caught out?
You can often spot a fake job offer due to the poor spelling and grammar used by the fraudsters behind it.
If in doubt, you can also check up on the accuracy of the information you are given, for example by calling the embassy of the country you are supposed to be going to work in to check how much a visa costs.
It also makes sense to check official records to confirm that the organisation offering you the job actually exists and check online forums for mentions of the company/person you are dealing with.
Citizens Advice said: "A mobile number or PO Box number are easy to close and difficult to trace – either could be a sign that the company doesn't exist or is not legitimate.
"Check out the company's details with Companies House or look on the internet for more details about them."
To avoid being taken in by working from home scams, meanwhile, be wary of adverts stating that you can earn a specific amount and look out for web mail email addresses such as @yahoo or @hotmail and mobile phone numbers beginning 07.
I've been defrauded. What should I do?
Once you realise that a job or business opportunity you have been offered is a fake, you should stop all communication with the "agency" or "employer" immediately, but make a note of their details and report it to Action Fraud (0300 123 2040).
You should also contact your bank as quickly as possible if you have handed over any money, or your account details.
And don't forget to keep any letters, emails or documents relating to the fraud as evidence.
First Direct found that the most common type of fraud was the 'fake email', which makes up 53% of all scams. This is also known as phishing, and involves the fraudsters contacting you, requesting personal information like passwords and PINs.
They use all kinds of methods to persuade you to reveal your details: from pretending to be your bank, to pretending to be the taxman. Earlier this year HMRC warned people to watch out for scam emails promising tax credit refunds in return for account details - timed to coincide with a major advertising campaign to remind people to renew their tax credits.
This is an old and established scam, but is the second most prevalent in the UK this year. It involves someone getting in contact with a sob story, and asking for a sum of money in return for paying you a larger sum. If you pay up you may get requests for more cash but you will never receive a payout.
This year the horrible twist on the scam was that the gangs pretended to be a victim of the war in Syria, in desperate need of money and able to pay you from money he has hidden overseas, once you give him enough money to escape the country.
This is a new take on phishing, which Financial Fraud Action warned about in August. They said victims receive a cold call asking for personal or financial information. Some 39% of all people targeted by these calls said they found it difficult to tell if the person was genuinely from their bank or whether it was a scam. First Direct says this is the third most prevalent type of scam.
Duplicating your bank cards made up 14% of fraud this year. Old-fashioned card scams are actually on the rise this year. The experts say that the introduction of chip and PIN means 'crude scams' are back in vogue, where criminals distract people in shops and bars, or shoulder surf at cash machines and then steal customers' cards without them noticing.
These also make up 14% of all scams. You receive an email telling you that you have won a lottery. All you have to do is get in touch with the 'claims agent' who you'll need to pay a 'processing fee' or a 'transfer charge' to. These 'agents' are all criminals, who will just take your money and run.
We warned in November of a boom in phoney research calls. Boiler room operatives will call pretending to be university researchers looking into investor confidence. In fact, they are just trying to find out how best to exploit you: asking how much cash you have, your attitude to risk, and determining whether an appeal to greed would work.
Back in May we warned that you could receive a telephone call out of the blue from someone claiming to be from Microsoft. The scammers were using a variety of techniques to extract money from their victims. These included infecting computers with malware and charging to remove it, charging people a fortune for help they didn't want or need, or even just asking for their credit card details.
This is not a new type of scam. For years now different types of Trojan viruses have been embedded in various web pages and links. If you click on the page or link you're taken to malicious websites, which install a virus. The virus then quietly sits on your computer, stealing passwords and account details until it has enough details to empty your bank accounts.
This scam took two very popular forms this year. The first was a link sent in an email pretending to be from Facebook, and inviting you to click the link. When you did, it would install the virus and then send the link to your Facebook friends.
The other form was a page with a fake YouTube video in the background, which claimed to show Rita Ora's famous wardrobe malfunction. However, the site prompts you to enter your Facebook details, so you can see the video and 'personalise your experience'. The criminals then have access to your Facebook account.
As the jobs market continues to be tight, the job offer scam is still a real risk. Financial Fraud Action issued a warning about fake online job offers, that could turn innocent job hunters into unwitting money launderers.
The jobs offered are called things like "payment processing agents" or "administration assistants". They involve the payment of the proceeds of crimes into your bank account. You then pay the cash into an overseas account, effectively hiding the money and laundering it for criminals. In return you receive a share of the money. This is a criminal act.
These reached a peak this year after One Direction collected their Brit award (pictured) and announced a World Tour - and demand for the tickets exploded. The scammers set up fake sites offering tickets to sold-out gigs. Desperate fans trawling the net would stumble across them and take a risk. They handed over hundreds of pounds, the criminals took the money, shut the website, and ran.