The executive board of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) will convene on Tuesday to discuss the possibility of imposing "provisional measures and sanctions" on Russia relating to next month's Rio Games, following the publication of a damning report by Professor Richard McLaren.
McLaren was appointed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to conduct an investigation into allegations of a doping cover-up in Russian sport, with the findings made public on Monday.
The report found that the country's government, security services and sporting authorities colluded to hide positive doping tests across a range of sports.
IOC president Thomas Bach said: "The findings of the report show a shocking and unprecedented attack on the integrity of sport and on the Olympic Games.
"Therefore, the IOC will not hesitate to take the toughest sanctions available against any individual or organisation implicated."
An IOC statement added: "In the immediate short term, the IOC Executive Board (EB) will convene in a telephone conference tomorrow to take its first decisions, which may include provisional measures and sanctions with regard to the Olympic Games Rio 2016."
Russian track and field athletes are already subject to a suspension from the IAAF that prevents them from participating in Rio.
McLaren refused to offer his opinion on whether an Olympic ban should be issued to Russian competitors in all sports.
"My mandate was to investigate and provide a report and to establish facts, it wasn't to make recommendations," said the Canadian lawyer.
"The information is in the report for others to take, absorb and act on - not for me to make recommendations about."