The South Africa Hockey Association (SAHA) is exploring its options after the country's Olympic Committee (SASCOC) prohibited their men's and women's teams from competing at the Rio Games.
Success at the African Hockey Championships in Johannesburg earlier this month looked to have ensured both South African teams would participate in the 2016 Olympics.
However, the nation's Olympic Committee has insisted qualification could only be secured via the Hockey World League.
A statement from the SAHA described the decision taken by SASCOC as "crippling", and one that will "have long lasting negative ramifications for the sport of hockey."
"The decision taken is by no measure in the interest of the sport," it added.
"SA Hockey will now explore any other possible avenues that may be available to us to further advance the possibility of entry for the Rio Olympic Games."