The British Medical Association (BMA) has launched a judicial review to challenge Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt's imposition of junior doctor contracts.
It will challenge the lawfulness of the decision, saying it is a "total failure on the Government's part".
The BMA says that instead of sitting down and negotiating with doctors, Mr Hunt turned his back on a fair offer.
It branded the Government's handling of the process as "shambolic", saying generations of doctors had been alienated.
Dr Johann Malawana, BMA junior doctor committee chair, said: "The decision to plough ahead with the imposition of an unfair contract that junior doctors have no confidence in and have roundly rejected, is a sign of total failure on the Government's part.
"Instead of meaningfully negotiating with the BMA to reach an agreement that would be in the best interest of patients, junior doctors and the NHS, the Government walked away, rejecting a fair and affordable offer by the BMA.
"It has since continued wilfully ignoring the mounting chorus of concern, from doctors, patients and senior NHS managers - the very people who use and provide NHS services."
Dr Malawana added: "The Government's shambolic mishandling of the process, from start to finish, has alienated a generation of doctors - the hospital doctors and GPs of the future - leaving a real risk that some will vote with their feet and the future of patient care will be affected.
"For the sake of patients, doctors and the future of the NHS the Government must put politics to one side, lift the imposition and actually address, rather than ignore, junior doctors' outstanding concerns."