All children will be expected to know their full times tables by the time they finish primary school, under new plans unveiled by Education Secretary Nicky Morgan.
New tests will examine multiplication skills in every 11 year old as part of the Government's "war on innumeracy and illiteracy", the Department for Education said.
Pupils will expected to know all tables up to 12x12, with the skill measured using an "on-screen check" examination to be piloted by 3,000 students in 80 schools this summer before being rolled out countrywide in 2017.
Mrs Morgan warned that teachers will also be judged by the results of the tests.
She said: "Maths is a non-negotiable of a good education. Since 2010, we've seen record numbers of 11 year olds start secondary school with a good grasp of the three Rs. But some continue to struggle.
"That is why, as part of our commitment to extend opportunity and deliver educational excellence everywhere we are introducing a new check to ensure that all pupils know their times tables by age 11.
"They will help teachers recognise those pupils at risk of falling behind and allow us to target those areas where children aren't being given a fair shot to succeed."
The new tests will see children complete multiplication challenges against the clock, which will be scored instantly, with the DfE saying it is the first use of on-screen technology in National Curriculum tests.