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Communications regulator, Ofcom, receives around 400 complaints a month and carried out research earlier this year that revealed 49% of adults were "very inconvenienced" by silent calls.
Over 35% of over-65s, for whom silent calls can be worrying, said they had received such calls.
Currently, companies that persist in making silent calls can be fined up to £50,000 but the government's proposal means that the fine could be increased to a maximum of £2m.
Treasury minister Stephen Timms, who is implementing the Digital Britain plan, said: "Silent calls can cause a great deal of annoyance and distress, particularly to the elderly and vulnerable when their phone rings but no one is on the end of the line.
"We want to send a clear message to those companies that are persistently abusing these automated calling systems that this will not be tolerated and there is a price to pay."